-By Ranjith Chandrasiri-

As simple as that sounds, sparkling wine is anything but simple. From the cheapest, artificially carbonated “bicycle pump” fizzies, through to the super-expensive, luxury cuvées from Champagne, sparkling wines bubble and sparkle in a myriad of styles throughout the world. These come in various shades of white, pink and red, in both vintage and non-vintage versions, any of which can be made from either single varietals or multi-grape blends. A universe unto themselves, Sparkling Wines must be approached and understood on their own terms. So what makes a good Sparkling Wine? It comes down to the bubbles, the wine and how they interact. Basically, the smaller, tighter and more persistent the bead or bubble size, the better the wine. Quality is defined by how all this fizziness, called mousse in French, collectively feels in the mouth. A wine that creates this feeling can be described as having “finesse”. Over time, Sparkling Wines have amassed a broad range of aromatic and flavour descriptors: citrus fruit, pineapple, apple, peach, fig, strawberry, raspberry, nutty (hazelnuts, almonds), toast, yeast, mushroom, soy, butter, cream, honey, baked pie crust, biscuit, caramel, malt and cocoa. For most of the last century, all sparkling wines were called “champagne” regardless of their provenance. Eventually, the inaccuracy and unfairness of using this term were recognised and now, only wine from the French region of Champagne has the right to use that name. Subsequently, other terms were adopted to describe similarly styled wine. The finest of these are now labelled Méthode TraditionnelleCava (of Spain) or “Fermented in this Bottle”.

 Champagne styles

Champagne provides the model for the vast majority of the world’s Sparkling Wine styles. Two red grapes, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier, and one white, Chardonnay, provide the complementary raw material blended into the non-vintage styles associated with each major Champagne house. White wine from the Pinot Noir grape is fuller bodied, providing structure and depth of fruit, in contrast to the richness, fruitiness, breadth and softness imparted by Pinot Meunier. Chardonnay adds a delicate fruitiness, austerity, elegance, and it ages well. Not unlike multi-grape Bordeaux blends, the predominant variety in the blend strongly determines house style. All Champagnes are made in a range of styles, from extremely dry to ultra-sweet: extra brut (less than 6g of residual sugar), brut (less than 15g), extra dry (12-20g), sec (17-35g), demi-sec (33-50g), rich or doux (more than 50g).

 Non-Champagne styles

Other European regions also produce méthode traditionnelle Sparkling Wines. In France, such wines are referred to as Crémant followed by the region’s name. France’s Alsace makes these from Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc, together with the related Auxerrois, Riesling and Chardonnay that have been planted in Alsace. All grape varieties grown in Burgundy are allowed into Crémant, although Gamay may not constitute more than one-fifth of the blend. In the Loire Valley, Crémant has the native, lemony, waxy Chenin Blanc as its most dominant component, but Sauvignon Blanc is forbidden to be included in the blend. The Spanish call their méthode traditionnelle sparkling wines cava and use completely different grapes: Xarel-lo for weight, Parellada for creamy base notes and Macabeo (pronounced mass-say-bow) for acidity and freshness. Italians employ spicy, grapey Moscato Bianco for their Spumante and the Germans mostly draw on Riesling for their crisp, clean sparkling Sekt. Elsewhere in the world, sparkling wines are made from all manner of local grapes. The finest examples are generally grown in cool climates that equate to those of Champagne’s and mostly rely on the same grapes: Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and, to a lesser degree, Pinot Meunier. Not unsurprisingly, California’s Anderson Valley and Russian River, New Zealand’s South Island, and Australia’s Tasmania and Yarra Valley all fit this bill and are among the regions most likely to approach Champagne quality. But the vast majority of the world’s inexpensive, volume-oriented sparkling wine comes from relatively warmer climates within Australia, Argentina and California. The best of these will also draw on Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, but high-acid Chenin Blanc and Semillon are commonly used as well. Quirky méthodes traditionelles have also been produced from Merlot, Gewürztraminer, Sauvignon Blanc and other varietals. While Italians have long produced a slightly fizzy red from the Lambrusco grape, Australia’s sparkling red is one of the most unusual wine styles to capture the imagination. Although the vast majority of Australia’s sparkling reds are made from Shiraz, intriguing alternatives are made from Malbec, Merlot or Durif.

Food for sparkling wine

Many claim that Champagne goes with everything, including chocolate and asparagus, which are boring companions to all other wines. This claim may be somewhat influenced psychologically by the nature of celebratory occasions and the unlikelihood that anyone would turn down the offer of a glass of champers. Certainly, the Champenois take it to an extreme, serving Champagne with every course. Following their progression, Blanc de Blancs are served with starters, non-vintage with fish, vintages with meat, rosés with local cheeses (Brie, Chaource, Cendré) and Doux with dessert. Traditional pairings often find Chardonnay-dominant wines with oysters, caviar, lobster, shellfish, smoked salmon, sashimi/sushi and Asian cuisine. Fuller pinot styles go well with poached or grilled salmon, foie gras, charcuterie, rabbit, hare, boar and ham. When you think of sparkling reds, think red lager. Australia’s rich, frothy, berry-sweet mouthwash will happily chase away a furious curry or chilli con carne. These wines have a flair with Asian food flavoured by hoisin or black bean sauce, and naturally pair with duck, turkey, pâté and goat’s cheese.

Top Champagne houses Light-bodied Taittinger Billecart-Salmon Perrier-Jouët

Medium-bodied Pol Roger Laurent-Perrier Moët & Chandon

Full-bodied Bollinger Louis Roederer Veuve Clicquot

Well-priced Champagne houses Cattier Drappier

Sparkling red

Rockford of Australia

Hardys of Australia

Popular sparkling producers of the world

Argyle (Oregon)

Hardys (Australia)

Domaine Chandon (Australia and California)

Iron Horse Vineyards (California)

Pongrácz (South Africa)

Cloudy Bay Pelorus (New Zealand )


-By Ranjith Chandrasiri-

Nothing sets the tone better for the festive season of Christmas and New Year than Champagne, or one of Champagne’s bubbly cousins such as Prosecco or Cava. But should you serve and drink Champagne or another sparkling wine at Christmas or New Year? And what is the difference anyway?

Real Champagne, that is – spelled with a capital C; only the sparkling wines grown and produced in the region of Champagne in France can truly be called Champagne. Bubblies from everywhere else in the world, mousseaux in the Loire region, spumante in Italy, Prosecco also from Italy, cava from Spain, Sekt from Germany are not Champagne but sparkling wine.

Make no mistake about it; it’s the growing conditions in Champagne which makes Champagne the best sparkling wines in the world. The proof? How about the fact that a number of the best Champagne houses – like Moet & Chandon, Roederer, Mumm, and Taittinger – have all established vineyards and sparkling wine facilities in California, bringing their best people to apply all the skill and experience they have to make the closest thing to Champagne possible. The result? Champagne-like wines – fresh, light, yeasty, and zesty. But ultimately, not nearly as deep and flavorful, not nearly as fine and delicate, and not nearly as pure and penetrating as the original stuff. Why? Because it’s grapes that make wine, and the grapes grown in California for sparklers will never be as fine as the grapes grown in Champagne. It will never be the same unless you can move the entire region — rocks, stocks and barrels — to another country.

It is no surprise that the lowest priced Champagne is more expensive than the finest sparkling wines from anywhere in the world — Nothing like the real thing!

If you want fresh, decent sparkling wine for under Rs 3,000, you can always get a lovely Prosecco from Italy, a steely dry cava from Spain, or a soft, aromatic Korbel from California. For about Rs 4,000 you can get great drinking “methode Champenoise” style wines for very Champagne-like finesse. But if you want the richest and finest stuff in the world to share with say, just a few of your closest friends, or the people you love most or celebrating a special occasion, then it must be Champagne with a capital C.

So here’s the million dollar question, especially for the millions of us who don’t have the millions spend: What are the best Champagnes? The answer is that when it comes to Champagne, it is hard to say which is the “best of the best. There are, however, classic styles of Champagnes followed by each major brand. So that’s the way to shop: by the style of Champagne that you prefer, or which Champagnes sound, look, smell, feel and taste the best to you. Since there are many wonderful Champagnes to choose from, you should try some classic styles and see what appeals to you the most.

Here are some notes on how Champagne satisfies all five senses


The sound made by a Champagne as it leaves a correctly opened bottle is one of your first clues to the wine’s identity. The cork should be eased out firmly but gently, releasing with a soft sigh or hiss. This is the prelude to a chorus of sounds that will soon become familiar to the attentive ear.

Listen carefully and you will learn to track the effervescence from first gush to its more sedate arrival in the glass. You can even judge the finesse of the bubbles – a key defining feature – from the sound they make once poured.

There is a discreet popping noise as the bottle is opened, then a crackling, fizzing sound as the wine is poured and the effervescence whooshes into the glass – a sound like the stirring of leaves in the breeze or the rustling of silk, taffeta, lace … The bubbles burst, hiss, chatter, babble, whisper then fade …


Observe the limpidity, lightness, fluidity and colour of the wine in the glass. Judge the density of yellow on a scale that ranges from golden blonde to straw yellow or grey gold. The human eye is capable of fine discrimination. What you should look for most in Champagne is brilliance, radiance and crystalline clarity – all qualities that appeal to the eye. An absence of limpidity, on the other hand, tends to be rather disconcerting.

Then there is the spectacle of the bubbles themselves – endlessly fascinating as they rise irrepressibly to the surface and collect in a jostling ring to form the ‘cordon’.

There are certain degrees of effervescence, each one an indication of a wine’s age and personality. Bubbles are synonymous with Champagne and always a welcome sight – but they should not overpower the nose.

Champagne sparkles with life as it is poured. The bubbles may be described as fine or medium-sized; steady, streaming or moving in groups; light and tiny; fast and furious, or slow and shy. Some whizz through the liquid like shooting stars, whirling and spiraling upwards. Others are more enduring and generous, settling in a delicate cordon round the edge of the glass. Others still are more discreet and dispersed or on the contrary very evenly distributed.

Wine critics often talk about tiny, silvery bubbles or bubbles that shatter into fragments of gold.

The mousse might be described as creamy, white, fine, enduring, lively, elegant, graceful, pale or frothy. The cordon formed by the mousse may be compared to a delicate string of pearls.


Champagne wines are so subtly aromatic that the effervescence may mask their delicate bouquet. Every bottle develops its own particular range of fruit, floral, wooded and spicy notes.

That first whiff of Champagne is like the overture to an opera: there is a recurring theme, followed by notes that reappear throughout the tasting. In a young Brut Champagne, for example, scents of white flowers are often the prelude to hints of orange peel and wild berries. The aromas in Champagne are inherently volatile, constantly evolving in the glass. How you describe them depends on how you perceive them, whether fruity, floral, mature, subtle or any other term that you might choose.

To appreciate the full aromatic potential of Champagne, you must allow the wine time to open – meanwhile studying its appearance in the glass. Once open, the Champagne releases its ‘first nose’ or immediate olfactory impressions, followed some time later by the deeper, more complex, more precise ‘second nose’. The aromas in Champagne are also an indication of grape variety and grape ripeness.


Champagne makes particular demands on the sense of taste, particularly the tongue and the palate. The moment when the wine enters the mouth is the high point of the tasting, especially for an experienced and attentive taster who will be looking for such qualities as intensity, completeness, sharpness, richness, perfection – sometimes even impertinence. How you define the wine very much depends on your ability to detect its subtle harmonies and tastes. Can your tastebuds distinguish between a touch of citrus and a hint of ripe pear? Would you say that the palate was round or long, lively or agile? What about the mouthfeel? Is it ripe with red berries, musky, toasty or brioche-like? It is delicate or ultra-refined? Look to your palate for the answers to these questions.

“The palate should be surprisingly but pleasantly sparkling, instantly seductive and velvety. The taste should have an underlying fruitiness, with a lingering fragrance that causes you to meditate silently and at length on the wine’s aromatic qualities – long after you put down your glass”. – Louis Bohre, an early 20th century Champagne ‘explorer’.


The bubbles feel like crystalline pearls on the palate, exploding with acidulous flavours that stand out against a rich, smooth background of ripe fruit and exotic wood interlaced with the fragrance of white flowers. Think of the bubbles as the musicians in a symphony orchestra. They rise to a crescendo then diminish by degrees to close on a note of peace and harmony. Excitement, completeness, tranquility – a symphony in three movements that intensifies our tasting pleasure.